Heart disease increases during winters. Know causes, symptoms, treatments | Health

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death worldwide, with an estimated 17.3 million people dying from CVDs in 2022, representing 30% of all global deaths, as seasonal variation in morbidity and mortality due to CVD has been observed in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with higher incidence rates during winter than in summer. This variation was associated with several risk factors, such as temperature, physical activity, air pollution, infections and dietary habits.

Other potentially important seasonal risk factors, such as seasonal variation in plasma levels of fibrinogen, cholesterol, hormones and vasoactive substances, including vasopressin (AVP), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and angiotensin II, aldosterone and catecholamine, which tend to increasing in it is suggested that winter plays an important role in the seasonal change in CVDs.

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr. Ajit Menon, Cardiac Science Adviser at Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital, highlighted: “There has been an increase in heart attacks following Covid. We see an increasing number of patients coming in with heart attacks. They are seen initially in the early phase of Covid and the immediate post Covid phase. However, at this time, we are not seeing any significant increase in these patients. We probably go back to what we were in the previous phases.”

Speaking about how you clinically diagnose a heart attack, he said: “There are certain symptoms of a heart attack, like severe pain in the chest, which is normally in the center of the chest, it feels more like a weight being held on the chest. This pain can radiate to the arms or the angle of the jaw, or it can also go down to the upper part of the stomach. Some patients may only basically complain of malaise, burning pain or a feeling of suffocation. So the symptoms of a heart attack are sometimes difficult to decipher, but if someone has any severe malaise or discomfort, which is unusual, I think they should seek medical attention and the easiest thing to do would be an EKG. An ECG would tell us if there is evidence of a heart attack or any impairment in the blood supply to the heart muscle.”

Seasonal variation in sudden cardiac death (SCD) has been well documented by several epidemiological studies with maximum and minimum incidences in winter and summer, while few studies have observed a different seasonal peak in the onset of SCD characterized by a higher frequency in the summer months. Abhijit Khadtare, a cardiologist at the Ruby Hall Clinic, said: “The exact cause of this variation is unknown, but it is believed that a combination of external and internal factors such as cold weather, increased platelet aggregation, decreased fibrinolytic activity and other components of the blood involved in thrombogenesis may be an important risk factor in the onset of SCD in winter. This approach is strengthened by findings of similar seasonal patterns for myocardial infarction, transient myocardial ischemia, and arrhythmias.”

He highlighted: “The winter increase in the occurrence of these related disorders suggests causation by identifiable triggers. The mechanisms that could explain the association between cardiovascular disease and temperature remain undetermined. Sympathetic nervous system activation and catecholamine secretion increase in response to cold temperatures. This can result in an increase in blood pressure through increased heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance. In patients whose coronary circulation is already compromised, this extra demand can produce myocardial ischemia, hence angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. A statistically significant positive correlation was also found between both air pressure and humidity and the incidence of PE.”

A study conducted in Scotland found that wind speed and temperature were significantly associated with the seasonal peak of DVT and the effect was delayed by approximately 9 to 10 days, but the authors calculated that each 10 mbar decrease in pressure was associated with a 2.1% increase in pressure. the relative risk of DVT. Furthermore, experimental studies have suggested that changes in temperature may also influence vascular function through an effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide bioavailability, where in rats, acute and short-term exposure to environmental or body temperatures Elevated central cells have been shown to increase endothelial expression of nitric oxide synthase.

On the other hand, repeated cold exposure of rats (4 °C for 4 hours a day for 1 week) led to the development of hypertension and impaired endothelial vasodilator function in isolated arterial tissue. The Doctor. Abhijit Khadtare suggested: “Knowledge of the role of environmental and biological factors can be used to improve prevention measures and educational strategies, especially in people at risk of disease. People should be informed about the increased risk of cardiovascular disease during cold seasons and educated about the importance of regular physical activity and clothing in winter. In addition, people should be motivated to maintain healthy eating habits, including a nutrient rich in vitamin D and low fat consumption. It is also necessary to manage hospital beds and other resources effectively in winter to avoid the bed crisis.”

Heart disease increases during winters. Know causes, symptoms, treatments | Health

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